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The Revised Constitution of The Empire of Ethiopia - 1955
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Chapter II



The Sovereignty of the Empire is vested in the Emperor and the supreme authority over all the affairs of the Empire is exercised by
Him as the Head of State, in the manner provided for in the present Constitution.


The Emperor determines the organization, powers and duties of all Ministers, executive departments and the administrations of
Government and appoints, promotes, transfers, suspends and dismisses the officials of the same.


The Emperor appoints Mayors of the municipalities referred to in Artical 129 of the present Constitution, from three candidates
presented, in each case, by the Municipal Councils thereof.


The Emperor reserves the right, with the advice and consent of Parliament, to declare war. He, further, reserves the right to decide
what armed forces shall be maintained, both in time of peace and in time of war. As Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, He
has the right to organize and command the said forces; to commission and to confer military rank upon officers of the said forces;
and to promote, transfer or dismiss any of the said officers. He has, further, the right to declare a state of siege, martial law, or a
national emergency, and to take such measures as are necessary to meet a threat to the defence or integrity of the Empire and to
assure its defences and integrity.


The Emperor exercises the supreme direction of the foreign relations of the Empire. The Emperor accredits and receives
Ambassadors, Ministers and Missions; He, alone, has the right to settle disputes with foreign Powers by adjudication and other
peaceful means, and provides for and agrees to measures of co-operation with foreign Powers for the realization of the ends of
security and common defence. He, alone, has the right to ratify, on behalf of Ethiopia, treaties and other international agreements,
and to determine which treaties and international agreements shall be subject to ratification before becoming binding upon the
Empire. However, all treaties of peace and all treaties and international agreements involving a modification of the territory of the
Empire, or of sovereignty jurisdiction over any part of such territory, or laying a burden on Ethiopian subjects personally, or
modifying legislation in existence, or requiring expenditures of state funds, or involving loans or monopolies, shall, before
becoming binding upon the Empire and the inhabitants thereof, be laid before Parliament, and if both the Houses of Parliament
shall approve the same in accordance with the provisions of Articals 88-90 inclusive of the present Constitution, shall then be
submitted to the Emperor for ratification.


(a)  The Emperor alone confers and withdraws the title of Prince and other honours, and institutes new orders.

(b)  Without His special leave, no Ethiopian subject, nor any foreign national in any Government service in the Empire, may accept
any honour, insignia of order, dignity, or title of or from, a foreign government. The granting of any title, honour or order may
exempt no one from the common duties and burdens of the subjects, nor may it carry any preferential admission to offices of the

(c)  Officials who are released from office with any assurances of Imperial favour, retain the title and rank of the office they have

(d)  The Emperor also makes grants from abandoned properties, and properties in escrow, for the purpose of recompensing
faithful service to the Crown.


The Emperor has the right to coin, print, and issue money.


The Emperor has the right to convene the annual sessions of the deliberative Chambers and to convoke extraordinary sessions
thereof. At the opening of each session of Chambers, He may present, or cause to be presented, a speech from the Throne
concerning the legislative program recommended by Him. He has the right to postpone the opening of and to suspend, for not
more than thirty days, and to extend, any session of Parliament. He has the right to dissolve the Chambers, or either of them, by an
Order, providing at the same time for the appointment of a new Senate or the election of a new Chamber of Deputies, or both, as
the case may be, and for the convocation of the Chamber for session within four months from the date of the Order.


In accordance with the provisions of Articals 86, 88, 91, and 92 of the present Constitution, the Emperor has the right to initiate
legislation and to originate other resolutions and to proclaim all laws, after the same shall have been passed by the Parliament.


The Emperor has the right and the duty to maintain justice through the courts; and the right to grant pardons and amnesties and
to commute penalties.


The Emperor, as Sovereign, has the duty to take all measures that may be necessary to ensure, at all times, the defence and
integrity of the Empire; the safety and welfare of its inhabitants, including their enjoyment of the human rights and fundamental
liberties recognized in the present Constitution; and the protection of all His Subjects and their rights and interests abroad.
Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, He has all the right and powers necessary for the accomplishment of the ends set out
in the present Artical.
Chapter III
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