RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF THE PEOPLE
No one shall be denied the equal protection of the laws.
There shall be no discrimination amongst Ethiopian subjects with respect to the enjoyment of all civil rights.
The law shall determine the conditions of acquisition and loss of Ethiopian nationality and of Ethiopian citizenship.
There shall be no interference with the exercise, in accordance with the law, of the rights of any religion or creed by the residents
of the Empire, provided that such rites be not utilized for political purposes or be not prejudicial to public order of morality.
Freedom of speech and of the press is guaranteed throughout the Empire in accordance with the law.
Correspondence shall be subject to no censorship, except in time of declared national emergency.
No one within the Empire may be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law.
Everyone has the right, within the limits of the law, to own and dispose of property. No one may be deprived of his property
except upon finding by ministerial order issued pursuant to the requirements of a special expropriation law enacted in accordance
with the provisions of Articals 88, 89 or 90 of the present Constitution, and except upon payment of just compensation
determined, in the absence of agreement, by judicial procedures established by law. Said ministerial order, to be effective, shall be
approved by the Council of Ministers and published in the Negarit Gazeta
Ethiopian subjects shall have the right, in accordance with the conditions prescribed by law, to assemble peaceably and without
Freedom to travel within the Empire and to change domicile therein is assured to all subjects of the Empire, in accordance with
Every Ethiopian subject has the right to engage in any occupation and, to that end, to form or join associations, in accordance with
The Ethiopian family, as the source of the maintenance and development of the Empire and the primary basis of education and
social harmony, is under the special protection of the law.
No Ethiopian subject may be banished from the Empire.
No Ethiopian subject may be extradited to a foreign country. No other person shall be extradited except as provided by
No one may be arrested without a warrant issued by a court, except in case of flagrant or serious violation of the law in force.
Every arrested person shall be brought before the judicial authority within forty-eight hours of his arrest. However, if the arrest
takes place in a locality which is removed from the court by a distance which can be traversed only on foot in not less than
forty-eight hours, the court shall have discretion to extend the period of forty-eight hours. The period of detention shall be
reckoned as a part of the term of imprisonment imposed by sentence. No one shall be held in prison awaiting trial on a criminal
charge to sole penalty for which is a fine.
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused, duly submitting to the court, shall have the right to a speedy trial and to be confronted
with witnesses against him, to have compulsory process, in accordance with the law, for obtaining witnesses in his favour, at the
expense of the Government and to have the assistance of council for his defence, who, if the accused is unable to obtain the same
by his own efforts or through his own funds, shall be assigned and provided to the accused by the court.
No person accused of and arrested for a crime shall be presumed guilty until so proven.
Punishment is personal. No one shall be punished except in accordance with the law and after conviction of an offence committed
No one shall be punished for any offence which has not been declared by law to be punishable before the commission of such
offence, or shall suffer any punishment greater than that which was provided by the law in force at the time of the commission of
No one shall be punished twice for the same offence.
No one shall be subjected to cruel and in human punishment.
No one shall be imprisoned for debt, except in case of legally proven fraud or of refusal either, to pay moneys or property
adjudged by the court to have been taken in violation of the law, or to pay, or to fulfill legal obligations of maintenance. This
provision shall not have the effect of releasing the debtor from his obligations.
No sentence of death shall be executed unless it be confirmed by the Emperor.
Confiscation of property as a penalty shall not be imposed except in cases of treason, as defined by law, against the Emperor or
the Empire; sequestration of property as a penalty shall not be imposed except in cases of property belonging to persons residing
abroad and conspiring against or engaging in deliberately hostile acts, as defined by law, against the Emperor or the Empire.
Attachment proceedings covering the whole or part of the property of a person, made under judicial authority, to cover payment
of civil liability, or liability arising out of the commission of an offence, or to meet taxes or fines, shall not be deemed a
confiscation of property.
All persons and all private domiciles shall be exempt from unlawful searches and seizures.
(a) In accordance with tradition and the provisions of Artical 4 of this Constitution, no one shall have the right to bring suit against
(b) Any resident of the Empire may bring suit, in the courts of Ethiopia, against the Government, or any Ministry, Department,
Agency or instrumentality thereof, for wrongful acts resulting in substantial damage. In the event that the courts shall find that
such suit has been brought maliciously or with out foundation, the Government, or any Ministry, Department, Agency,
instrumentality, or official thereof against whom or which such suit was brought, shall have the right of action against such
resident for such malicious or unfounded suit, and the court shall, in such case, decree remedies or penalties according to the law.
Everyone in the Empire shall have the right to present petitions to the Emperor.
Everyone in the Empire has the duty to respect and obey the constitution, laws, decrees, orders and regulations of the Empire.
Ethiopian subjects, in additions, owe loyalty to the Emperor and the Empire, and have duty of defending the Emperor and the
Empire against, foreign and domestic, to perform public services, including military services, when called upon to do so, and to
exercise the right of suffrage which is conferred upon them by the Constitution.
Respect for the rights and freedoms of others and the requirements of public order and the general welfare, shall alone justify any
limitations upon the rights guaranteed in the foregoing articals of the present Chapter.