Chapter XVIII
UCI ~ I See You
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Nothing is hidden from God's view!...
Speech To Visiting U.S. Editors
Mar. 14, 1960
It is a great pleasure for Us to receive this large delegation of American journalists.  We take your
visit as a manifestation of interest in the challenge which Africa has so long presented to the world,
a challenge to respect for the principles of freedom, of international Law, non-intervention, mutual
respect and progress, a challenge, also, that for too many decades had gone unheard.  For years, as
Sovereign of one of the oldest and very few independent States on this Continent, We had been
called by historic events to press forward, at times quite alone, in defence of those principles.  We,
therefore, take your presence here today as an evidence of the encouragement which is now
flowing in from all quarters of the world to those who have fought and who are continuing to fight
for those ideals and principles.

Freedom, in Africa, as the history of Our Reign, We believe, demonstrates, signifies an implacable
and unceasing struggle against colonialism.  Within Our lifetime, Ethiopia has twice been called
upon to defend her age-old independence against invasion.  The victory of Adowa merely gave her
a respite, during which time imperialist forces built up their plans and strength to attack us once
again.  As before at Adowa in 1896, so Ethiopia in 1935, under Our leadership, waged without
assistance an implacable struggle against superior forces.  Many were the occasions before and
during the years of lonely vigil abroad, when imperialist interests sought to bring Us and Our
people to abjure and abandon Our high cause.  They did not even hesitate to utilize neighbouring
brothers and territories, like Somaliland, as bases for assaults upon Our independence, although
many of those brothers fought on Our side against imperialism.  We and Our people rejected these
attempts and so, at a critical stage or world history, helped defend the cause of the freedom of

However, even upon vindicating Our freedom, the struggle had not yet been won.  Vested interests
persisted in opposing the return to Ethiopia of lands and population torn off by colonialist
aggression, as well as her access to the sea.  Today, in this region, as elsewhere in Africa, these
interests seek through "Balkanization" to consolidate their positions in the face of coalescence of
national forces.
African Liberation
Nevertheless, with the victory, and although much remained to be accomplished, We turned Our
efforts towards advancing the cause of freedom of others on this Continent.  We felt it important
that Our brothers in Africa should attain to freedom and independence without the cruel sacrifices
and sufferings We had known.  However, the proffering of this assistance to others was beset with
many difficulties.  At the end of the War, as indeed, for decades before the War, Ethiopia was still
totally surrounded, even cut off from the sea, by colonial territories.  Colonialists interests had thus
built a barrier to separate Us from the rest of Africa.  Notwithstanding these obstacles, we
contributed, as we are today contributing, to the movement for the liberation of all African
peoples.  For years, therefore, We brought Our efforts to bear at the United Nations and elsewhere,
to bring the nations of the world to the realization that colonialism is no longer possible on the
Continent of Africa.

Thus, alone in 1886, alone in 1925, alone in 1935 and alone at Geneva in 1936, Ethiopia fought for
those principles of freedom, independence, territorial integrity, non-intervention and collective
security that have become today the implicit precepts upon which the United Nations are based
and which, through that struggle, have so substantially contributed to the achievement of
independence and the end of colonialism in Africa.  Years ago, We took the lead in pressing by
active measures, for the freedom and independence of those States who today are honoured
Members of the United Nations.

Since political freedom cannot be assured without economic independence, this struggle has been
a long and, at times, a bitter one.  The economic obstacles are formidable, to say nothing of the
political opposition which those economic obstacles in fact support.  The opposition would divide
the countries of Africa, profiting by their present vulnerable economic postures, in order to
promote political aims.

We are confident that, by concerting among themselves, the people of Africa will be able to build
an enduring community linked by solid economic as well as political bonds.  However, it is
important that the opportunities for consultation be expanded to a maximum.  For this reason,
Ethiopia has been a staunch supporter of every conference of Independent Africa States.  We feel
that by consultation and co-operation between independent States, the clarity and force of the
ideals or of freedom can best be preserved.  Addis Ababa has thus been the scene of many
conferences of African countries, and, in June of this year, the second Conference of Independent
African States will meet in Our Capital, to be followed by a series of other African meetings.
Purposeful Visits
Moreover, during the last few years, We have personally travelled to your great country, to Europe,
to the Far East, and to the Middle East, in order ot press the cause of freedom in Africa.  Now We
are engaged in a series of visits to the independent countries of Africa so as to assist in
strengthening the bases of collaboration which are so necessary for the attainment of those

In concerting Our efforts, we must, at the same time, be prepared to pool Our energies and
resources and to contribute to the establishment of an African programme of mutual aid.  For
example, the independent African States have the obligation to open their educational institutions
to students from all African countries.  We have, to this end, already provided no less than 250
scholarships.  It is hoped that Our University at Addis Ababa may play an ever-more important role
in this great African endeavour.  Here is a field where disinterested foreign contributions would be
of inestimable value in drawing closer together peoples of distant Continents.

Similarly, it is essential that capital resources be available to permit that industrial development
which is so essential to the maintenance of political and economic independence.  It is a fact that
too many agricultural countries today fail to perceive that a measure of industrial development and
an industrial structure constitute a necessary safeguard of economic autonomy and, consequently,
of political independence.  We firmly believe that foreign capital and skill can, without
compromising political or economic independence -- on the contrary, by supporting them, make a
profound contribution to the progress and welfare of African peoples.  In this situation, the greatest
industrial Power today should be alert to augment the measure of its investments in the African

It is to be hoped that, with greater knowledge of African affairs which your visit to this Continent
will certainly bring about, and with a more penetrating comprehension of the motive and ideals
which are inspiring all Africans today, it may prove possible to open a new era of material as well
as political and spiritual progress for the good of mankind.
Haile Selassie the First - March 14, 1960