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Ethiopian Empire (Aksum Kingdom)

• Dʿmt
    c. 980 BCE
• Kingdom of Aksum
    c. 100 CE
• Zagwe Dynasty
• Ethiopian Empire
• Italian Ethiopia
• Sovereignty restored
• Provisional Military
    Government of Socialist
    Ethiopia 1974
• People's Democratic
Republic of Ethiopia
• Current constitution
    21 August 1995

Source: Wikipedia
Ethiopia's History
Ethiopia is Africa's
oldest independent
country and its
second largest in
terms of population.
Apart from a five-year
occupation by
Mussolini's Italy, it
has never been
colonised. It has a
unique cultural
heritage, being the
home of the
Ethiopian Orthodox
Church - one of the
oldest Christian
Around the 8th century BC, a kingdom known as Dʿmt was established in Tigray, in northern Ethiopia, and Eritrea. The polity's
capital was located at Yeha, in northern Ethiopia. Most modern historians consider this civilization to be a native Ethiopian one,
although Sabaean-influenced because of the latter's hegemony of the Red Sea.[20]

Other scholars regard Dʿmt as the result of a union of Afroasiatic-speaking cultures of the Cushitic and Semitic branches; namely,
local Agaw peoples and Sabaeans from South Arabia. However, Ge'ez, the ancient Semitic language of Ethiopia, is thought to have
developed independently from Sabaean, one of the South Semitic languages. As early as 2000 BC, other Semitic speakers were
living in Ethiopia and Eritrea where Ge'ez developed.[57][58] Sabaean influence is now thought to have been minor, limited to a
few localities, and disappearing after a few decades or a century. It may have been a trading or military colony in alliance with the
Ethiopian civilization of Dʿmt or some other proto-Aksumite state.[20]

Source: Wikipedia
Map of Ethiopia, 1972

Ethiopia was divided into 13 provinces (Taklai Ghizat)
by Imperial Ethiopian Government Decree No. 1 of
1942 and later amendments.

The 13 provinces were:
Shewa (Shoa)
The People
World Press ~ 27 October 2020

From #Miss_World to a #Pilot,
what a great progress❗️❤��

#Hayat_Ahmed (right) is an Ethiopian ���� model and beauty
queen which later become a Pilot at #Ethiopian_Airlines.

Now, she is First Officer at Ethiopian Airlines which she will
soon become a #Captain‼️

Hayat Ahmed was Ethiopia's first representative to any Miss
World pageant.

© World Press
The Caves
Tsega Rasta ~ 13 November 2020
Travel to Ethiopia ~ 13 November 2020

Sof Omar Caves
, also known as Holqa Sof Omar, is the longest system of caves in Africa, and it is located in the Bale
Province within the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.

Considered to be one of the world’s most spectacular and extensive underground caves, it is carved from the Weib
River which has changed its course in the distant past and it has carved a new channel through the limestone foothills
which today are known as the Sof Omar Caves.

The Weib River vanishes into the giant world of deep vaulted chambers leaving every visitor in a simple awe with its
astonishing curves. Named after the saintly Sheik Sof Omar Ahmed, who took refuge here sometime in 11 century, the
caves too have a somewhat religious history that predates the arrival of the Muslims in Bale. #LandOfOrigins Tourism
Ethiopia #FlyEthiopian
Eritrea was federated to Ethiopia in 1952, as a Federated state under the Imperial Crown.  It was not until 1962, that
the Federation was dissolved and Eritrea became the 14th province.

"...Ethiopia is but a general name for a vast territory or state. In it live many tribes, but the important idea is not the
several tribes; it is the unity within the land which they can call their own...." - Girmawi Qedamawi Haile Selassie (His
Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I)

We feel that the fragmentation of a nation along tribal and ethnic lines is contrary to the will of survival and to the
force of logic, because even for the tribes to survive they must stand together..." - Girmawi Qedamawi Haile Selassie
(His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I)

As Ethiopia is one all Ethiopians are one and education is the only way to maintain this condition." - Girmawi
Qedamawi Haile Selassie (His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I)

Source: Tsega Tekle Haimanot ~ FB post ~ 6 September 2020
1955 Constitution of Ethiopia
(Nov 4, 1955)
The Revised Constitution of The Empire of Ethiopia ~ Proclamation
Ethiopia Country Data
Ethiopia Country Data
Ethiopian Flag
"Our national flag was never cancelled not even during the five years of the partial occupation of Ethiopia, because our valiant
patriots, under Our orders, courageously resisted the enemy. Many countries refused to recognize the occupation and there the
Ethiopian flag continued as an Emblem of Ethiopia's freedom.

The faithful people of Gojjam fought bravely against the enemy during the invasion, they resisted the occupation, and rather than
submitting to the enemy, many of them preferred to live as refugees. Presenting this flag to the Second Battalion which under Our
command marched into the capital, symbolizes Our triumphant entry into Addis Abeba, which does not limit it's significance to the
Battalion, but is of meaning to the whole of the Empire.

This flag you receive now is the symbol not only of the resistance and the sacrifices endured during the exile; it is witness of the
historic moment when we raised the Ethiopian Flag at Omedla. During that time this Battalion was a guard of honour to Ourselves,
and We know better than anyone the services rendered by each one of you when this Battalion served as Our guard of Honour.

The Faithful people of Gojjam who fought relentlessly during the five years against the enemy, never surrendering were chosen to
be the first among those to liberate the country and lead the campaign to victory.

The value of a flag springs from the sacrifices made to defend it as the symbol of Independence, otherwise there is no difference
between a flag and any other piece of cloth.

That is why the flag is an eternal source of inspiration, of loyalty and the symbol of the sacred duty and obligation of a soldier; to
him it is a moral sentinel. "- Girmawi Qedamawi Haile Selassie

Source: Tsega Tekle Haimanot FB Post - May 5th, 2019
Ethiopia in the Bible
National Artifacts
Ethiopian Calendar
Ethiopian Icons
Ethiopian Military
Ethiopia National
Ethiopian (Imperial)
Coins and Medallions
Orders ~
Ethiopian (Imperial)
Royal and Noble Titles
Ethiopian Crosses
Cathedrals ~ Churches ~ Temples
Crests ~ Seals ~
Coat of Arms
Ethiopian (Imperial)
Ethiopian (Imperial)
Ethiopian Imperial Palace
Spiritual Life
Ethiopia's Electorial Law
Kebra Negast
Fetha Negast
Ethiopia Hairstyles ~ 1
Ethiopia Hairstyles ~ 2
Ethiopian Food
Spiritual Icon Images
Holy Days ~
The tragic cost of so called 'progress and development' is dominated by armed invasions, slavery and
capitalism, led by imperialism. Equity and Justice, will be manifested as we execute Our Plan and restore the
Dynasty of His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I!

** Tragic Cost of "Progress and Development"! ** (Click this link)
The Falls
“The Blue Nile Falls is a waterfall on the Blue Nile river in Ethiopia. It is known as Tis Abay in Amharic, meaning "great smoke". It is
situated on the upper course of the river, about 30 km downstream from the town of Bahir Dar and Lake Tana. The falls are one of
Ethiopia's best known tourist attractions.”   #LandOfOrigins #tourism #VisitEthiopia

Source: Voice Africa ~ 29 January 2021
Ode to Ethiopia
Ethiopian New Year
As this year (September 11, 2019; in Gregorian Calendar) in Ethiopia comes to a close, tomorrow will be the start of a New Year,
"Ethiopian New Year!" At this time of the year, the rainy season is coming to an end, and this holy land will begin to be covered
with yellow maskal daisies and the people in their new holiday clothes will go to visit relatives for joyful feasting.

According to legend, it is said, this is the day that Makeda, Queen of Sheba returned to her kingdom pregnant with King Solomon's
son, Menelik I, who would establish Ethiopia's Imperial Dynasty. Upon welcoming her home, it is said, her nobles gave her enqu
(jewels), hence the holiday being known as "enqutatash."

As each year is respectfully named after one of the Four Evangelists (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John), this year the Ethiopian
Orthodox Tewahedo Church upon heralding the New Year will be celebrating Kidus Yohannes (John the Baptist) who heralded the
coming of Christ.

May the Almighty Creator grant for all Ethiopians, at home and abroad, a year filled with joy, love, peace, good health, and
prosperity. ����������

መልካም አዲስ ዓመት!!! 2012
Melkam Addis Amet!!! 2012
Happy New Year!!! 2012

Ye Amet Yohannes New (This is the year of St. John)

Source:  Tsega Tekle Haimanot ~ FB Post ~ 11 September 2019
Growth and Structure of the Economy
Developments up to l974
By African standards, Ethiopia is a potentially wealthy country, with fertile soil and good rainfall over large regions. Farmers
produce a variety of grains, including wheat, corn, and millet. Coffee also grows well on southern slopes. Herders can raise cattle,
sheep, and goats in nearly all parts of the country. Additionally, Ethiopia possesses several valuable minerals, including gold and

Unlike most sub-Saharan African countries, Ethiopia's resources have enabled the country to maintain contacts with the outside
world for centuries. Since ancient times, Ethiopian traders exchanged gold, ivory, musk, and wild animal skins for salt and luxury
goods, such as silk and velvet. By the late nineteenth century, coffee had become one of Ethiopia's more important cash crops. At
that time, most trade flowed along two major trade routes, both of which terminated in the far southwest in the Kefa-Jima region.
From there, one route went north to Mitsiwa via Gonder and Adwa, the other along the Awash River valley to Harer and then on to
Berbera or Zeila on the Red Sea.

Despite its many riches, Ethiopia never became a great trading nation. Most Ethiopians despised traders, preferring instead to
emulate the country's warriors and priests. After establishing a foothold in the country, Greek, Armenian, and Arab traders became
the economic intermediaries between Ethiopia and the outside world. Arabs also settled in the interior and eventually dominated
all commercial activity except petty trade.

When their occupation of Ethiopia ended in 1941, the Italians left behind them a country whose economic structure was much as it
had been for centuries. There had been some improvements in communications, particularly in the area of road building, and
attempts had been made to establish a few small industries and to introduce commercial farming, particularly in Eritrea, which
Italy had occupied since 1890. But these changes were limited. With only a small proportion of the population participating in the
money economy, trade consisted mostly of barter. Wage labor was limited, economic units were largely self-sufficient, foreign
trade was negligible, and the market for manufactured goods was extremely small.

During the late l940s and 1950s, much of the economy remained unchanged. The government focused its development efforts on
expansion of the bureaucratic structure and ancillary services. Most farmers cultivated small plots of land or herded cattle.
Traditional and primitive farming methods provided the population with a subsistence standard of living. In addition, many
nomadic peoples raised livestock and followed a life of seasonal movement in drier areas. The agricultural sector grew slightly,
and the industrial sector represented a small part of the total economy.

By the early l950s, Emperor Haile Selassie I (reigned 1930- 74) had renewed calls for a transition from a subsistence economy to
an agro-industrial economy. To accomplish this task, Ethiopia needed an infrastructure to exploit resources, a material base to
improve living conditions, and better health, education, communications, and other services. A key element of the emperor's new
economic policy was the adoption of centrally administered development plans. Between l945 and l957, several technical
missions, including one each from the United States, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and
Yugoslavia, prepared a series of development plans. However, these plans failed to achieve any meaningful results, largely because
basic statistical data were scarce and the government's administrative and technical capabilities were minimal.

In 1954/55 the government created the National Economic Council to coordinate the state's development plans. This agency,
which was a policy-making body chaired by the emperor, devoted its attention to improving agricultural and industrial
productivity, eradicating illiteracy and diseases, and improving living standards for all Ethiopians. The National Economic Council
helped to prepare Ethiopia's first and second five-year plans.

The First Five-Year Plan (1957-61) sought to develop a strong infrastructure, particularly in transportation, construction, and
communications, to link isolated regions. Another goal was the establishment of an indigenous cadre of skilled and semiskilled
personnel to work in processing industries to help reduce Ethiopia's dependence on imports. Lastly, the plan aimed to accelerate
agricultural development by promoting commercial agricultural ventures. The Second Five-Year Plan (1962-67) signaled the start
of a twenty-year program to change Ethiopia's predominantly agricultural economy to an agro-industrial one. The plan's
objectives included diversification of production, introduction of modern processing methods, and expansion of the economy's
productive capacity to increase the country's growth rate. The Third Five-Year Plan (1968-73) also sought to facilitate Ethiopia's
economic well-being by raising manufacturing and agro-industrial performance. However, unlike its predecessors, the third plan
expressed the government's willingness to expand educational opportunities and to improve peasant agriculture. Total
investment for the First Five-Year Plan reached 839.6 million birr (for value of the birr--see Glossary), about 25 percent above the
planned 674 million birr figure; total expenditure for the Second Five-Year Plan was 13 percent higher than the planned 1,694
million birr figure. The allocation for the Third Five-Year Plan was 3,115 million birr.

Several factors hindered Ethiopia's development planning. Apart from the fact that the government lacked the administrative and
technical capabilities to implement a national development plan, staffing problems plagued the Planning Commission (which
prepared the first and second plans) and the Ministry of Planning (which prepared the third). Many project managers failed to
achieve plan objectives because they neglected to identify the resources (personnel, equipment, and funds) and to establish the
organizational structures necessary to facilitate large- scale economic development.

During the First Five-Year Plan, the gross national product (GNP--see Glossary) increased at a 3.2 percent annual rate as opposed
to the projected figure of 3.7 percent, and growth in economic sectors such as agriculture, manufacturing, and mining failed to
meet the national plan's targets. Exports increased at a 3.5 percent annual rate during the first plan, whereas imports grew at a
rate of 6.4 percent per annum, thus failing to correct the negative balance of trade that had existed since l95l.

The Second Five-Year Plan and Third Five-Year Plan anticipated that the economy would grow at an annual rate of 4.3 percent and
6.0 percent, respectively. Officials also expected agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation and communications to grow at
respective rates of 2.5, 27.3, and 6.7 percent annually during the Second Five-Year Plan and at respective rates of 2.9, l4.9, and l0.9
percent during the Third Five-Year Plan. The Planning Commission never assessed the performance of these two plans, largely
because of a shortage of qualified personnel.

However, according to data from the Ethiopian government's Central Statistical Authority, during the 1960/61 to 1973/74 period
the economy achieved sustained economic growth. Between 1960 and 1970, for example, Ethiopia enjoyed an annual 4.4 percent
average growth rate in per capita gross domestic product (GDP--see Glossary). The manufacturing sector's growth rate more than
doubled (from 1.9 percent in 1960/61 to 4.4 percent in 1973/74), and the growth rate for the wholesale, retail trade,
transportation, and communications sectors increased from 9.3 percent to 15.6 percent.

Relative to its neighbors, Ethiopia's economic performance was mixed. Ethiopia's 4.4 percent average per capita GDP growth rate
was higher than Sudan's 1.3 percent rate or Somalia's 1 percent rate. However, Kenya's GDP grew at an estimated 6 percent annual
rate, and Uganda achieved a 5.6 percent growth rate during the same 1960/61 to 1972/73 period.

By the early l970s, Ethiopia's economy not only had started to grow but also had begun to diversify into areas such as
manufacturing and services. However, these changes failed to improve the lives of most Ethiopians. About four-fifths of the
population were subsistence farmers who lived in poverty because they used most of their meager production to pay taxes, rents,
debt payments, and bribes. On a broader level, from 1953 to 1974 the balance of trade registered annual deficits. The only
exception was l973, when a combination of unusually large receipts from the export of oilseeds and pulses and an unusually small
rise in import values resulted in a favorable balance of payments of 454 million birr. With the country registering trade deficits, the
government attempted to restrict imports and to substitute locally produced industrial goods to improve the trade balance.
Despite these efforts, however, the unfavorable trade balance continued. As a result, foreign grants and loans financed much of the
balance of payments deficit.

Ethiopia ~ 1956
Louis Farrakhan Speaks Out: Holy Ethiopia,
King Haile Selassie I & the Ras Teferians Testimony
Beautiful Ethiopia
Black Lions ~ Our Glory ~ A Tribute to our Ethiopian Warriors
Rock-Hewn Churches of Lalibela, Ethiopia in HD
Mother Africa
Source: video created by Doni Glover
Africa the Beautiful Continent
Source: Mama Africa
Welcome to Ethiopia
Source: Travel to Ethiopia
Nothing is hidden from God's view!...
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