|"Black Psychosexual Development"|
below are abstracts from Valerie Orridge presentation
|"Black sexuality and relevant issues must be viewed within the context of a series of historical episodes in the black |
experience in America. Black culture in America has been totally different from white, and there must be an
acceptance of this historical reality in order for accurate analysis to occur. Beginning with the slave trade industry,
which expanded over a period of more than 250 years, black people were manipulated and shaped psychologically
and sexually within a system of brutal oppression. The circumstances under which the black population arrived in
America dictates that their sexuality cannot be evaluated by standards, mainly Eurocentric, developed by whites for
white populations. Within the slave experience, sexuality was completely controlled by whites. Torn from their
African tribal constraints, men and women alike were as breeding animals to procreate more slaves. Women were
completely divested of any control of their sexuality. Having to have sex with white men on the plantation, having to
have sex with the black men at the direction of the white slave master, being placed naked on the auction block for
bidding did nothing to bolster the black woman’s esteem.
It was during this institution of slavery that racial and sexual stereotypes had their genesis, indeed to justify the
perpetuation of black slavery. Men were portrayed as having huge phalli, unrestrained libidos, limitless in sexual
activity, but impotent intellectually. Women were depicted as free, loose, amoral—savage-like, primitive, and
uninhibited in sexual activity. It was this justification that gave birth to a philosophy of racism, and set the foundation
for future race relations. Generations of being manipulated sexually were responsible for the oppressed viewing
themselves in the same way as the oppressors. There was no other model of morality and the personality could not be
independent of its environment of involuntary promiscuity and polygamy.
During Reconstruction, race laws were relaxed and the black population was given some degree of protection and
safety from racial terrorism. Men and women were permitted to marry. Indeed, men and women could not marry
within the slavery system. The Post-Reconstruction era was also a time of terror for the black population. The Ku Klux
Klan and other race hate organizations conducted mass lynchings of black men. The sharecropping environment was
another form of plantation life where, again, the black women were the victims of forced sexual activity by white men.
The subsequent exodus of masses of black people from the South to northern cities seeking employment
opportunities was the foundation for the development of massive black communities in Northern inner cities. The
search for opportunity was an abortive attempt for most. Lack of employment, adequate housing, educational
opportunities, medical attention, and other deficits led to the formation of the “ghetto,” and its subsequent living
conditions. Out of this environment of economic stress, substandard education, employment deficits, and a lack of
quality of life factors for survival emerged a way of life. It is a way of life that has had to adapt itself for survival and
defend itself from oppression. A people are a product of their experience and their environment, and it is within this
social framework that sexual attitudes for the black masses have developed. It is a part of the social heritage that is
transgenerational. To be certain, not all blacks fit this picture. There are many well-educated, accomplished, and
otherwise well-to-do middle- and upper-class blacks whose lives have not been infected by the pathologies of inner-
city life. By and large, this percentage is infinitesimal in comparison to the masses. It is imperative to understand the
relationship between psychosexual development, the philosophy of race, and the shaping by historical factors."
Source: FB Post 31 July 2015 ~ Retrieved 03-21-2018
|WE CAN FORGIVE, BUT NEVER FORGET|
ITALIAN CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY IN ETHIOPIA AFTER THE YEKATIT 12 INCIDENT
|Estimates of the number of people killed in the three days that followed the attempt on the Marchese di Neghelli's life
vary. Ethiopian sources afterwards estimated as many as 30,000 people were killed by the Italians, while Italian
sources claimed only a few hundred were killed. Over the following week, numerous Ethiopians suspected or accused
of opposing Italian rule were rounded up and executed, including members of the Black Lions, and other members of
the aristocracy; most of the 125 young men whom Emperor Haile Selassie had sent abroad to receive college
education, and were still resident in Ethiopia, were killed. Many more were imprisoned, even collaborators like Ras
Gebre Haywot, the son of Ras Mikael of Wollo (who had been imprisoned by Emperor Haile Selassie for nine years
prior to the Italian invasion), Brehane Markos, and even Ayale Gebre; the latter had helped the Italians identify the
two men who made the attempt on General Graziani's life.
The Italian response was immediate. According to Mockler, "Italian carabinieri had fired into the crowds of beggars
and poor assembled for the distribution of alms; and it is said that the Federal Secretary, Guido Cortese, even fired his
revolver into the group of Ethiopian dignitaries standing around him." Hours later, Cortese gave the fatal order:
“ Comrades, today is the day when we should show our devotion to our Viceroy by reacting and destroying the
Ethiopians for three days. For three days I give you carte blanche to destroy and kill and do what you want to the
For the rest of that day, through Saturday and Sunday, Italians killed Ethiopians with daggers and truncheons to the
shouts of "Duce! Duce!" and "Civiltà Italiana!" They doused native houses with petrol and set them on fire. They broke
into the homes of local Greeks and Armenians and lynched their servants. Some even posed on the corpses of their
victims to have their photographs taken. In three days, the Italians had killed 30,000 Ethiopians in Addis Ababa only.
The first day has been commemorated as "Yekatit 12" (Ethiopian February 19) by Ethiopians ever since . There is a
monument called by the same name in Addis Ababa in memory of those Ethiopian victims of Italian aggression.
The attempted murder provided the Italians with the reason to implement Mussolini's order, issued as early as 3 May
1936, to summarily execute "The Young Ethiopians", the small group of intellectuals who had received college
education from American and European colleges. The same day as the assassination, a military tribunal was set up,
and by nightfall 62 Ethiopians were tried and shot. "The Graziani Massacre marked the almost total liquidation of the
intellectual component of the Resistance," writes Bahru Zewde.
Thousands of Ethiopians of all classes were sent to detention camps at Danan in the Ogaden and Nokra in the Dahlak
Archipelago. Conditions at Danan were inhospitable, and the Marchese di Neghelli had given orders that the prisoners
would receive only the bare minimum of food and water. As Sbacchi notes, "Poor facilities, including latrines, the
humid climate, malaria, stomach infections, and venereal disease took many lives, especially among those compelled
to work on the irrigation canal or on the banana and sugar-cane plantations." Between ten percent and half of the
prisoners died at Danan.
Conditions at Nokra were even worse than at Danan, according to Sbacchi. The detainees sent there joined 500
prisoners serving life sentences for serious political crimes, increasing the total number incarcerated to 1,500. These
inmates suffered from lack of fresh water, sunstroke, marsh fever, and dysentery.
The final reprisal struck in May. Investigators found that Abraha and Mogus had stayed a while at Debra Libanos, and
slight circumstantial evidence suggested that the monks had foreknowledge of their plans. The Marchese di Neghelli
(better known as Marshal Graziani), mindful of his misadventure at Jijiga, believed they were complicit and on 19 May
cabled the local commander: "Therefore execute summarily all monks without distinction including the Vice-Prior."
The following day, the feast day of their patron saint Tekle Haymanot, 297 monks plus 23 laymen were shot — the
entire population of the monastery.
Source: Tsega Tekle Haimanot FB Post ~ 02-13-2019
|Nothing is hidden from God's view!...
|Copyright © 2011-2019 UMOJA Connection, Inc.|
All rights reserved.